Title XVIII of the Social Security Act (SSA):
Section 1862(a)(1)(A) excludes expenses incurred for items or services which are not reasonable and necessary for the diagnosis or treatment of illness or injury or to improve the functioning of a malformed body member.
Section 1833(e) prohibits Medicare payment for any claim which lacks the necessary information to process the claim.
Code of Federal Regulations:
42 CFR, Section 410.32, indicates that diagnostic tests may only be ordered by the treating physician (or other treating practitioner acting within the scope of his or her license and Medicare requirements) who furnishes a consultation or treats a beneficiary for a specific medical problem and who uses the results in the management of the beneficiary's specific medical problem. Tests not ordered by the physician (or other qualified non-physician provider) who is treating the beneficiary are not reasonable and necessary (see Sec. 411.15(k)(1) of this chapter).
CMS Publication 100-02, Medicare Benefit Policy Manual, Chapter 15, Section 80.1 – Laboratory services must meet applicable requirements of CLIA
CMS Publication 100-02, Medicare Benefit Policy Manual, Chapter 15, Section 80.6. 5 which describes the Surgical/Cytopathology Exception.
CMS Publication 100-04, Medicare Claims Processing Manual, Chapter 16, Section 40.7 Billing for Noncovered Clinical Laboratory Tests Section and 120.1 Clarification of the Use of the Term “Screening” or “Screen”
CMS Publication 100-04, Medicare Claims Processing Manual, Chapter 30, Section 50 Advance Beneficiary Notice of Noncoverage (ABN)
CMS Publication 100-08, Medicare Program Integrity Manual, Chapter 13, Local Coverage Determinations
CMS National Correct Coding Initiative (NCCI) Policy Manual for Medicare Services, Chapter 10, Pathology/Laboratory Services, (A) Introduction
CMS National Correct Coding Initiative (NCCI) Policy Manual for Medicare Services, Chapter 10 Pathology/Laboratory Services which addresses reflex testing.
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